Bird-window collisions. The Wilson Bulletin 101(4): 606-620. Daniel Klem, Jr., 1989

ABSTRACT —Collisions of birds with windows were studied by reviewing the literature, collecting data from museums and individuals, monitoring man-made structures, and conducting field experiments. Approximately 25% (225/917) of the avian species in the United States and Canada have been documented striking windows. Sex, age, or residency status have little influence on vulnerability to collision. There is no season, time of day, and almost no weather condition during which birds elude the window hazard. Collisions occur at windows of various sizes, heights, and orientations in urban, suburban, and rural environments. Analyses of experimental results and observations under a multitude of conditions suggest that birds hit windows because they fail to recognize clear or reflective glass panes as barriers. Avian, manmade structural, or environmental features that increase the density of birds near windows can account for strike rates at specific locations. A combination of interacting factors must be considered to explain strike frequency at any particular impact site. Received 28 Oct. 1988, accepted 17 April 1989.

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