Glass: a deadly conservation issue for birds. Bird Observer 34(2): 73-81. Daniel Klem, Jr., 2006

Aside from habitat destruction that eliminates fundamental resources upon which life depends, it is my contention that clear and reflective sheet glass causes the deaths of more birds than any other human-related avian mortality factor. Although clear and irrefutable evidence to support this claim is currently not available, a vast amount of data and its interpretation overwhelmingly upholds this assertion. I have spent more than 30 years studying bird-glass collisions and human-related avian mortality in general, and this article presents an overview of the glass hazard for birds: its character, scale, and our current knowledge about how to mitigate, if not eliminate, this unintended killing of birds.

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